ANTH 410A | ENVIR 410A | ESRM 405A
Ecology, Economy, and Politics of Resource-Extraction Ecosystems
Spring Quarter 2017
Tuesdays and Thursdays 9:30-11:20, Denny 212
Field trips all day Fridays April 14, May 12, and May 26
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ESSAY ASSIGNMENTS Forest Products
Essay Assignment for the Forest Resources Unit
Forest Management in India!
There is an urgent need for bringing to halt the ecological degradation in the form of deforestation which in turn results in soil erosion, desertification and harmful climatic conditions.
Forest management aims at efficient management of forests in such a way that the needs of the present generation be met without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs i.e. forest management aims to ensure equal access to forests by future generations. For ensuring this, the rate of utilisation of forest products has to be within the limits of regeneration.
The following measures should be taken to conserve the forest wealth:
(a) Timber and fuel wood should be used very economically by minimising wastage.
(b) Alternate sources of energy such as biogas solar energy etc. should be developed to supplement fuel wood.
(c) Overgrazing and deforestation should be prohibited. Reforestation of deforested areas should be encouraged.
(d) Pest and fire control by modern techniques should be adopted to prevent loss of forests.
(e) Forestry should be improved by modern techniques like use of fertilizers, irrigation, weed control, tissue-culture etc.
Another vital aspect of forest conservation is afforestation which means growing of forests in areas unfit for agriculture due to adverse climatic and edaphic factors like saline waterlogged unstable soils etc. Afforestation is undertaken after remedying the adverse factors.
It was stipulated in the National Forest Policy (1952) that 33 per cent of a country’s land area should be under forest cover to sustain agriculture and maintain the quality of our environment but in India forests form only 23 per cent of the total land area.
With a view to make up for this shortfall, the central and state governments have undertaken many afforestation programmes such as:
(a) Agro Forestry:
In this the same piece of land is used for farming, forestry and animal husbandry.
(b) Social Forestry:
In this trees are raised for fuel wood, fodder, edible fruits, agricultural implements and construction purposes for rural populations.
(c) Urban Forestry:
In this the ornamental fruit trees are grown in urban areas such as house compounds, common parks and along roads. In India, ever since 1950, a special function of tree plantation namely Van Mahotsava is held each year to make people forest-conscious. Van Mahotsava is celebrated twice a year during the months of February and July.
For a week in each of these months, tree plantation is carried out in barren unproductive fallow land. Thereafter, with regular care and protection these saplings grow into full fledged trees. Van Mahotsava is not merely a festival it is a process of land transformation to recreate forests where there were none before.